PostgreSQL vs SQL Server: 16 Crucial Variations

by | May 30, 2022 | Etcetera | 0 comments

With a vast selection of databases to choose from to be had out there, consumers can continuously mull over PostgreSQL vs SQL Server to iron out the better selection for their use case. Organizations that leverage PostgreSQL for their operations would most likely need to switch to a database like Microsoft SQL Server as it necessarily caters to different data warehousing solutions, ecommerce, and other traces of business.

Historically, Microsoft SQL Server has been a favorite for organizations that depend on other Microsoft products, alternatively PostgreSQL has made rapid strides to upward thrust to the very best of the realm of passion not only as a result of the advantages of going open-source however as well as for its full of life community of shoppers and handy choices.

That’s what brings us to this discussion. Comparing PostgreSQL and SQL Server will will help you upper understand the possible advantages and trade-offs of the two systems, and which one is most suitable to your purpose.

Let’s dig in!

What Is PostgreSQL?

The PostgreSQL logo, showing the text below a stylized blue elephant head outlined in black and white.
PostgreSQL brand (Image Provide: Uberconf)

PostgreSQL has established itself as an enterprise-class, sophisticated open-source database that is helping each and every JSON (non-relational) and SQL (relational) querying. This hard and forged database keep an eye on manner has been backed via over thirty years of full of life community construction that has contributed to its recognition for integrity, reliability, resilience, potency, and correctness.

PostgreSQL is used as the primary data warehouse or data store for relatively a large number of mobile, cyber web, analytics, and geospatial applications. PostgreSQL moreover boasts a rich history of supporting sophisticated data types in conjunction with potency optimization regularly found out during its business database counterparts, like Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle.

On very best of being loose and open-source, PostgreSQL may be extraordinarily extensible. For instance, you’ll generate custom designed functions, define your data types, and even write code from relatively a large number of programming languages without a wish to recompile your database!


Proper right here’s a short lived analysis of PostgreSQL over time:

  • Ingres was first developed in 1977.
  • Michael Stonebraker and his friends developed Postgres in 1986.
  • In 1990, improve for PL/ pgSQL and ACID compliance was added to PostgreSQL.
  • NYCPUG (New York The city PostgreSQL Client Staff) joined the PgUS (United States PostgreSQL Association) once more in 2013.
  • In 2014, the PGconf ushered in a brand spanking new era for PostgreSQL consumers.

Number one Choices

Now, let’s switch on to try some choices of PostgreSQL that make it such an indispensable instrument available on the market:

  • Necessities compliance and reliability: PostgreSQL’s write-ahead logging shall we in it to stand out as a really fault-tolerant database. PostgreSQL may be ACID-compliant and gives entire improve for views, in another country keys, triggers, joins, and stored procedures, in relatively a large number of languages. It incorporates most SQL: 2008 data types, in conjunction with BOOLEAN, NUMERIC, INTEGER, DATE, VARCHAR, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL, and CHAR.
  • Tricky extensions: PostgreSQL properties difficult function gadgets similar to point-in-time recovery, multi-version concurrency (MVCC), tablespaces, granular get entry to controls, and online/scorching backups. PostgreSQL may be locale-aware for case sensitivity, sorting, and formatting. It’s extraordinarily scalable in each and every the quantity of information it will arrange and inside the number of simultaneous consumers that can be accommodated.
  • Open-source license: You’ll have the ability to avail of the PostgreSQL provide code beneath an open-source license, providing you with the freedom to modify, use, and implement it as you understand are compatible, without any worth. On very best of this, PostgreSQL incurs no licensing worth, which eliminates the chance of over-deployment. PostgreSQL’s community of enthusiasts and folks endlessly to seek out fixes and bugs, lending to the entire protection of the database manner.

Use Instances

PostgreSQL’s versatility shall we in it to be leveraged in a vast range of use cases like:

  • Federated hub database: PostgreSQL’s JSON improve and in another country data wrappers allow it to link with other data retail outlets — in conjunction with NoSQL data types — and serve as a federated hub for polyglot database systems.
  • Standard-purpose OLTP database: Massive enterprises and startups each and every use PostgreSQL as the primary data store to improve their internet-scale applications, products, and solutions.
  • Geospatial database: PostgreSQL is helping geographic pieces when used with the PostGIS extension. It may be used as a geospatial data store for geographic information systems (GIS) and location-based services.
  • LAPP open-source stack: PostgreSQL can also run dynamic apps and websites as part of an impressive variety to the LAMP stack. LAPP stands for Linux, Apache, PostgreSQL, Perl, PHP, and Python.

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What Is SQL Server?

The SQL Server logo, showing the text next to a stylized gray and Microsoft deep red dynamic grid symbol.
SQL Server brand (Image Provide: Software Engineering Stack Exchange)

SQL Server was developed via Microsoft as a relational database keep an eye on manner that boasts a longer history, thirty-two years, to be precise. Microsoft SQL Server is thought of as a device product with the primary function of retrieving and collating data as requested via other software applications.

The ones applications would most likely each run on a definite pc during a group or on the identical pc. Microsoft SQL Server has spotted a lot of updates over time, to grow to be one of the most easiest supported and one of the vital reputed RDBMSs to be had out there in recent years.

SQL Server owes a large chunk of its popularity to its maker, Microsoft. When MS SQL Server was in its nascent point, Microsoft had already established itself as a tech wide.

SQL Server has managed to make a mark as a database keep an eye on manner with its broad choice of applications and tool that simplify operating with data. Its entire graphical individual interface (GUI) shall we in intuitive and easy artwork with the database while allowing you to generate statistics to your tales.


Right here’s a short lived analysis of Microsoft SQL Server over time:

  • The evolution of SQL Server began in 1988 when Microsoft collaborated with Sybase and Ashton-Tate to increase database upkeep and creation software that would provide an impetus to Microsoft’s commerce database market.
  • SQL Server 1.0 was rolled out in 1989. Once more then, it leveraged the process administrator facility (SAF) to generate databases. It didn’t have any documentation, however it for sure nevertheless allowed consumers to run SQL queries and set parameters. The main code snippet for Microsoft SQL Server was penned via Sybase.
  • Step by step, newer diversifications have been introduced with further improvements and lines. SQL Server 2019, or Aries is the newest addition to a pantheon of entire diversifications as it focuses on making the database choices a lot more intuitive to use. This incorporates massive data cluster alternatives, giving consumers the choice to artwork with wide data gadgets.

Number one Choices

Enough history keep in touch. Let’s take a look at a couple of pivotal choices that make SQL Server one of these great catch:

  • Tricky protection platform: SQL Server shall we in you to protect your data in motion and at recreational with built-in choices for info protection, data classification, alerts, and monitoring. With SQL Server, you’ll merely encrypt refined data and perform rich computations on encrypted data, and allow customized role-based data get entry to complete with sophisticated row filtering.
  • Business-leading potency: SQL Server boasts record-breaking potency on Linux and House home windows as it consistently leads during TPC-H data warehousing workload, TPC-E OLTP workload, and real-world instrument potency benchmarks. You’ll have the ability to moreover use SQL Server’s in-memory database options similar to memory-optimized tempdb and persistent memory improve to beef up potency to your mission-critical workloads.
  • Intelligence during your whole data with massive data clusters: SQL Server allows you to gain treasured insights from your whole data via querying data during all of your data belongings — Azure SQL Database, SQL Server, Teradata, MongoDB, Azure Cosmos DB, and a number of further — without a wish to replica or switch data. You’ll have the ability to even assemble a shared data lake via combining each and every unstructured and structured data in SQL Server and getting access to the information each by the use of Spark or T-SQL.

Use Instances

SQL Server’s extensibility and serve as allow it to be leveraged in a vast range of use cases like:

  • Replication services: SQL Server replication services are utilized by SQL Server to harmonize and replicate database pieces, each as a subset of the pieces supply or in their entirety. Replication services adhere to a subscriber/creator sort, i.e. the changes are sent out via one database server (creator) and are collected via others (subscribers).
  • Notification services: Notification services have been to begin with introduced as a post-release add-on for SQL Server 2000. This can be a mechanism for rising data-driven changes, which are then sent to the notification services subscribers.
  • Device finding out services: SQL Server formula finding out services serve as throughout the SQL Server instance, letting other people perform data analytics and formula finding out without a wish to delivery data across the group or be hindered in the course of the memory of their pc methods.
  • Analysis Services and products: SQL Server analysis services (SSAS) supplies data mining and OLAP options for SQL Server databases. The OLAP engine offers improve for relational online analytical processing (ROLAP), multidimensional online analytical processing (MOLAP), and hybrid online analytical processing (HOLAP) storage modes for info. SQL Server analysis services moreover improve XML for the analysis standard as the fundamental conversation protocol.
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PostgreSQL vs SQL Server: Head-to-Head Comparison

Now that we’ve were given an idea regarding the salient aspects of SQL Server and PostgreSQL, let’s dig into the diversities between the two. You’ll have the ability to use the factors mentioned beneath to identify which database keep an eye on manner suits your needs easiest.


PostgreSQL offers a big selection of solutions to ensure best availability for purchasers, in conjunction with write-ahead log supply, shared-disk failover, data partitioning, and relatively a large number of replication methods. Apparatus like EDB Postgres Failover Manager provide computerized failover to ensure best availability via monitoring for and understanding database disasters.

Alternatively, SQL Server incorporates relatively a large number of best availability equipment similar to log supply, failover clusters, and replication. SQL Server’s availability groups that artwork round the clock provide computerized failover when specific necessities are met. However, this offering can only be accessed in SQL Server’s mission edition.

Wisdom & Table Building

PostgreSQL provides the PL/pgSQL procedural programming language to its consumers for simplicity. Additional functionalities to straightforward SQL in PostgreSQL include user-defined types, custom designed modules, extensions, JSON improve, and extra alternatives for triggers and other functionalities.

SQL Server uses T-SQL, which bears resemblance to straightforward SQL. T-SQL incorporates additional improve for info and string processing, procedural programming, and local variables.

If you want to upper understand how the systems cache and process requests, PostgreSQL isolates processes via treating them as separate OS processes. Each database has a separate memory and runs its process. This makes monitoring and keep an eye on actually simple, alternatively at the identical time, it makes scaling various databases more difficult.

SQL Server uses a buffer pool that can be limited or higher in step with processing needs. All of the artwork is carried out in a single pool, without a various pages, by contrast to PostgreSQL.

Each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server provide improve for short tables as it allows you to store intermediate results from branched sophisticated commonplace sense and complex procedures. Transient tables can have the same opinion beef up database team and serve as via atmosphere aside intermediary information from the an important as successfully.


When developers control different parts of an SQL database, the changes occur at different problems with the process and may also be arduous to track, be told, and arrange. Because of this reality, upkeep will have to moreover include defragmentation — the process of collating the up to the moment database via assigning indexes, generating new pages, and revisiting the development. The databases can then unencumber the disk space that’s not carried out accurately so that a database can run at a sooner pace.

PostgreSQL scans the tables of a data layer to seek for empty rows and eliminates pointless parts. By means of doing so, the process liberates the disk space. However, the program needs a lot of CPU and can impact the application’s potency.

Alternatively, SQL Server provides an efficient garbage collector that doesn’t generate more than 15-20% of overhead. Technically, developers can also run garbage collectors endlessly, because of it’s that environment friendly. To summarize, SQL Server offers further defragmentation methods than PostgreSQL.


The easiest way a database tackles indexes is a testament to its usability because of indexes are used to pinpoint data without searching for a selected row. You’ll have the ability to moreover use indexes to test with various columns or rows. You’ll have the ability to assign the identical index to data, supply them in other places inside the database, and obtain these kinds of pieces with a single search.

PostgreSQL is helping index-based table team, alternatively the early diversifications didn’t use computerized index updates. It moreover allows you to look up many indexes in a single search, on account of this that you simply’ll discover a lot of information.

SQL Server provides rich automated capacity for index keep an eye on. They can be organized in clusters and care for the proper row order without manual involvement. SQL Server moreover is helping partial indexes and multiple-index searches.


PostgreSQL doesn’t offer a built-in procedure scheduler, by contrast to other SQL databases. Repetitive tasks need external equipment like cron, pgAgent, or pg_cron on Linux, and SQLBackupAndFTP or Process Scheduler on House home windows.

Tasks in SQL Server, then again, may also be merely scheduled by the use of SQL Server Keep an eye on Studio.

PostgreSQL has well-developed multi-version concurrency control (MVCC) to tackle various procedures at the identical time. MVCC offers snapshots of database information to steer clear of displaying inconsistencies ended in via simultaneous transactions or locking of information that takes place in numerous database systems. PostgreSQL leverages serializable snapshot isolation (SSI) to ensure transaction isolation.

SQL Server has a miles much less developed multi-version concurrency control manner and is made up our minds via locking of information to steer clear of errors from simultaneous transactions, via default. SQL Server moreover offers an optimistic concurrency function, which assumes that such issues occur infrequently. So, as opposed to locking a row, it’s verified in opposition to a cached version to go looking out if any alternate has taken place.

Partitioning and Sharding

When potency recommended homes are an important for higher databases and in addition you’ve maxed out your stored procedures, and your {{hardware}} may be upgraded, you would need to distribute the artwork during relatively a large number of servers. Proper right here’s when partitioning and sharding come into play.

While each and every sharding and partitioning are essentially about breaking a large dataset into smaller subsets, sharding implies that the information is spread during various pc methods while partitioning doesn’t.

From version 10.0, PostgreSQL is helping declarative partitioning — partitioning via range, tick list, or hash.

MS SQL Server is helping horizontal partitioning — splitting a table with many rows into various tables with lesser rows.

MS SQL Server moreover is helping sharding by the use of federation. “Federated partitioned views” are views where tables are spread during different servers to steadiness the processing load.

To retrieve the ideas from the servers, you want certain directions. The ones directions are known as allotted partitioned views. They use same old SQL statements, in conjunction with the important thing word UNION, to draw data from all the allotted servers.

Likewise, DML statements (INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE) can be utilized when specific rules are spotted on the underlying tables. Moreover, remember that federated partitioned views are only supported on mission editions.

Despite the fact that federated partitioned views may also be carried out on any other edition as there’s no distinguishing syntax for them, they won’t be recognized as federated partitioned views. The principles to recognize the view as partitioned during servers are only available with mission editions.

Using the program of partitioning, there’s typically an increase in potency via 20% to 30% in most applications. Subsequently, it’s a very great tool if your business manages a lot of data.


While partitioning is splitting the database into smaller subsets and distributing the partitioned tables into different nodes, replication is copying the database during various databases to offer a to hand information a coarse look and less response time.

PostgreSQL offers primary-secondary replication. This may also be asynchronous or synchronous. Write-ahead logs (WALs) allow for sharing changes with the replica nodes, due to this fact enabling asynchronous replication.

The other varieties of replications mainly include logical replication, streaming replication, and physically replication.

  • Logical replication follows a post and subscribe sort. Changes are in step with the identity of the information replication, like its necessary key, moderately than its physically location.
  • Streaming replication essentially streams the WALs as briefly for the reason that doc is created, thus enabling standby servers to be in short up to the moment, as an alternative of taking a look ahead to the doc to be filled.
  • In any case, physically replication is typically carried out with data and directories, without a regard for the contents throughout the physically location. PostgreSQL doesn’t offer multi-primary replication natively, alternatively it can be carried out with the help of other third-party equipment.
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SQL Server replication duplicates data from a creator server to a subscriber. It can be asynchronous or asynchronous depending on the SQL Server edition. It offers 3 forms of replications, in particular: transactional replication, snapshot replication, and merge replication.

  • Transactional replication is in most cases carried out for server-to-server environments, where changes are delivered from the creator to the subscriber as they happen.
  • Merge replication is typically carried out in situations where conflicts would most likely occur, for server-to-client environments, or where data may also be changed and tracked on each the subscriber or creator and is due to this fact synchronized.
  • Snapshot replication is carried out when data is up to the moment now and again, doesn’t need to be altered incrementally, or where data is duplicated exactly as apparently at a selected 2d. Additionally, the mission edition offers peer-to-peer replication as an alternative option to multi-primary node replication.

Language & Syntax

PostgreSQL is written in C language, and MS SQL is written in C and C++. With regards to language binding, PostgreSQL is very easy to use and connect to as a result of its external API libpq, which might be very well-designed and documented.

However, SQL Server external language bindings may depend on various other parts. It’s worthwhile to need to arrange further drivers or create classes to store the information that’s queried; thus you’d must seize what the information seems like at compile time. You most likely can maximum surely wish to test with the documentation, and it could be moderately time-consuming to apply up.

In relation to procedural language choices, each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server provide difficult improve. PostgreSQL is helping the JSON data type and consumers can merely use Python, Java, PHP, Perl, and R with SQL as they’re backed in the course of the procedural language function.

While SQL Server does provide improve, this option is however to be complex, as there are slight bugs that occur, and it’ll take some time to implement as it’s slow. The individual will have to compile the code proper right into a .dll doc first.

In PostgreSQL, there’s no need to create a .dll doc first. PostgreSQL moreover provides a huge number of commonplace expressions (regex) as a foundation for analytical artwork.

MS SQL Server reasonably has lesser regex and is helping certain directions like substring, and development index, which is probably not as superb as PostgreSQL.


In relation to potency, PostgreSQL trumps SQL Server in numerous techniques. We touched upon partitioning, and while each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server offer partitioning, PostgreSQL offers it at no cost, with further efficiency.

PostgreSQL moreover offers upper concurrency, which is an important function where various processes can get entry to and alter shared data at the identical time. The MVCC serve as of PostgreSQL promises a lesser chance of deadlock, only blockading if two queries try to control the identical row at the identical time and serialize the updates made to that row.

The MVCC lock bought for querying data doesn’t struggle with the locks bought for writing data. This minimizes lock competition and gives upper potency in multiuser environments.

Alternatively, SQL Server has an underdeveloped concurrency, and a couple of processes can be deadlocked. As opposed to the MVCC function, each and every time a row is up to the moment, a brand spanking new version of the row is created as an alternative of overwriting the identical row and each and every are maintained. Step by step, the older diversifications switch proper into a technique database known as tempdb. However, its concurrency has a longer way to transfer.

PostgreSQL moreover offers indexing improve for various extensions, which boosts the potency of the database.

Alternatively, SQL servers are however to beef up on their indexing implementation, they’re however to include arrays — one of the vital used variable types.


PostgreSQL was introduced beneath the PostgreSQL License, a liberal open-source license. The PostgreSQL World Construction Staff remains devoted to making PostgreSQL available as loose and open-source software without end. There don’t seem to be any plans to switch or release PostgreSQL beneath a definite license.

MS SQL Server was introduced beneath a business license as a part of Microsoft products. In early 2016, the database was made available as a loose instrument for developers, however it for sure only is helping one processor and 1GB of maximum memory. While it’s loose, it lacks various choices that you must need for a commerce. It’s worthwhile to need to pay $899 in keeping with server in the event you occur to require further servers. In recent times, the SQL Server mission edition costs $13,748.


The facility of the database way to continue to function successfully when data is larger to fulfill an individual’s need without compromising on its potency is called scalability.

PostgreSQL offers many choices relating to scalability and can employ various CPU cores to parallelly implement queries in short.

SQL Server can also use cores, alternatively, the standard version is specific to twenty-four cores of CPU. The mission version shall we in for the usage of endless CPU cores. SQL Server moreover possesses a hyper-scale function, where you’ll come to a decision the lower and better limits allowing you to scale downwards and upwards as in keeping with the must haves.

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With the rise of information theft, hacking, and piracy, security does no doubt grow to be an important requirement in database systems. However, each and every SQL Server and PostgreSQL provide superb data encryption and authentication.

Authentication Methods

On the server-side, PostgreSQL offers sophisticated authentication methods in conjunction with lightweight list get entry to protocol (LDAP) and pluggable authentication module (PAM), which most probably reduce the attack flooring of the PostgreSQL database servers. Other server-level protection enhancements to PostgreSQL include PostgreSQL server listen take care of, host-based authentication, and certificate authentication.

In MS SQL Server, there are two server-level protection enhancement choices: House home windows authentication mode and mixed-mode which comprises an authentication process via each and every House home windows Server and MS SQL Server. The security form of MS SQL Server is a great integration between the House home windows authentication mode of House home windows Server and the database.

Wisdom Encryption

PostgreSQL provides data encryption and allows you to use safe sockets layer (SSL) certificates when your data is traveling all through the cyber web or public group highways. It moreover allows you to implement client certificate authentication equipment as an selection. In addition to, you’ll use cryptogenic functions to store encrypted data in PostgreSQL that improve each and every symmetric-key and public-key encryptions.

In MS SQL Server, the available data encryption choices include transparent data encryption (TDE), at all times encrypted, and column-level encryption. TDE uses the sophisticated encryption standard (AES) algorithm for encrypting physically data, which include each and every data and log data. The at all times encrypted function allows you to encrypt certain columns in each and every states, at recreational or in motion (i.e. the information remains encrypted in memory as successfully).

Client-Degree Privileges

Further, you’ll arrange different consumers in conjunction with their permissions (be told, write) in each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server.

PostgreSQL incorporates user-level privileges as serve as assignments, table-level privileges by the use of roles, and serve as inheritance. The auditing selection allows you to analysis consumers’ and groups’ data get entry to movements to your database, which supplies a layer of extra protection.

SQL Server achieves this by the use of individual groups and roles. Helpful useful resource permissions are granted without delay to the individual account, and permissions are inherited from a father or mom helpful useful resource.

You’ll have the ability to moreover decide concurrency issues, long-running queries, and commonplace workload metrics via monitoring and auditing movements in SQL Server.


Storage is one of the key parts of any database manner’s potency. With the rise of the servers’ processing power and large-scale memory improve, it becomes nearly an important for the databases to allow for added storage options inside the manner.

PostgreSQL is an object-relational database, while Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database manner. This means PostgreSQL offers further sophisticated data types and shall we in object inheritance, even if it moreover makes operating with PostgreSQL further sophisticated. It has a single ACID-compliant storage engine and initializes a brand spanking new manner process with its memory allocation for each and every client connection. Subsequently, with the upward thrust of client connections on systems, further memory will have to be allocated.

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SQL Server 2016 and above can use a maximum of 100 pc methods or virtual machines with a maximum of five circumstances working in keeping with pc. However, this too is made up our minds via its edition. The mission edition shall we in for maximum bandwidth, due to this fact further storage options might be granted. While the newest standard edition shall we in for use of up to 128GB of memory, you’ll use endless memory inside the mission version.

Beef up & Community

PostgreSQL releases up to the moment diversifications endlessly at no cost. Simply in recent years, The PostgreSQL World Construction Staff has released an update to all supported diversifications of the database manner, fixing over 55 bugs reported all through the closing 3 months. PostgreSQL boasts a vast community of developers, third-party corporations, and enthusiasts that supply improve and in addition try to increase the process via fixing the reported bugs.

SQL Server releases a brand spanking new version each and every few years. The improve costs depend on the words and prerequisites of the license. Microsoft SQL Server moreover has a improve community, where database analysts, developers, manner administrators, or any individual inside the platform can ask questions, or be informed further about SQL Server by the use of podcasts and webcasts similar to the SQL Server Radio with Guy Glantser and Eitan Blumin, where consumers get to seize such a lot regarding the SQL Server and its compatibility with other Microsoft equipment.

Each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server may also be provided with plugins. The pricing and compatibility depend on the plugin. Plugins may also be helpful to control, clean, once more up your database, or further.

For instance, Adminer is a data keep an eye on instrument and can be used to control data in each and every PostgreSQL and MS SQL Server. Various other database plugins can be used to beef up the efficiency of your database as successfully in particular: WP-Optimize, Upper Search Trade, WP Database Backup, to name a few. When you strengthen any database manner, there might be data migration costs, alternatively this is same old for any other standard DBMS.

Seeing unexpected behavior? The PostgreSQL community takes pride in releasing software that will reliably store your data. If you believe you've discovered a bug, please click the button below and follow the instructions on how to submit a bug.
PostgreSQL malicious program discovery message (Image Provide: PostgreSQL)

Triggers & Events

PostgreSQL has relatively a large number of sophisticated triggers you’ll choose from depending for your use case. Supported triggering events are AFTER, BEFORE, and INSTEAD OF, and they may be able to be used for INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE events to keep an eye on data. As mentioned forward of, PostgreSQL can run the ones triggers dynamically and doesn’t need to compile them proper right into a .dll doc forward of execution. The above functions can be used to execute a complicated query when the reason gets invoked.

SQL Server offers relatively a large number of triggers for various kinds of database events, in particular DML triggers, DDL triggers, and logon triggers:

  • DML triggers or data manipulation language triggers are triggers used to keep an eye on data, via placing, updating, or deleting data.
  • DDL triggers are for info definition language (DDL) events, like rising, dropping, or converting a database.
  • Logon triggers are used for logon events, like when an individual session is established. The ones triggers hearth after successful authentication and forward of putting in the individual session. They’re useful for auditing and controlling login job.


Views are essentially virtual tables that don’t store data physically. They’re generally used for protection purposes to limit individual get entry to to data. Each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server improve updatable views.

However, in PostgreSQL, the updates don’t occur automatically till the following prerequisites are glad:

  • There will have to be a work inside the FROM clause inside the query of that view. The phase may also be from a table or every other updatable view.
  • There will have to be no window functions, mixture functions, or set-returning functions inside the selection tick list.
  • The query mustn’t include the directions HAVING, LIMIT, DISTINCT, WITH, INTERSECT, EXCEPT, OFFSET or LIMIT on the most efficient level.

In brief, the views created with simple queries may also be up to the moment whilst it’s nearly impossible to interchange the ones created with sophisticated queries. Alternatively, sophisticated views may also be up to the moment via the use of rules. While PostgreSQL may not provide the facility for working materialized views, it has a module known as matviews, which is able to have the same opinion in rebuilding any materialized view.

In SQL Server, views may also be automatically up to the moment, and each and every user-defined and system-defined views are supported. Moreover, two table views are up to the moment at the identical time if they have different keys and the substitute remark doesn’t include a number of table.

Additionally, the individual can profit from triggers to interchange sophisticated views. SQL Server moreover provides facilities to run materialized views often referred to as indexed views. By contrast to materialized views in numerous relational databases, indexed views are synced to the underlying data and are thus up to the moment automatically.

Shortcomings of SQL Server and PostgreSQL

While we’ve discussed all the details on PostgreSQL and SQL Server, each and every have their drawbacks.

While PostgreSQL is loose, it isn’t owned via a single team. As a result of that, it has struggled to go looking out footing various the lots, irrespective of being intently featured. PostgreSQL moreover focuses on compatibility more than tempo. Thus, changes which can be created for tempo expansion name for added artwork.

Alternatively, SQL Server has continuously been criticized for its poor individual interface. It has sophisticated potency tuning choices and no native improve for provide control. Must you’re the use of it to your company, the mission version may burn a hole to your pocket. SQL Server 2019 mission edition by myself costs $13,748 — that’s like 13 rooms worth of Ikea furniture! Moreover, the licensing may also be moderately obscure and is endlessly changing.

If PostgreSQL and SQL Server aren’t moderately to your liking, you’ll take a look at MongoDB or MariaDB to your unique use case.

MongoDB is a document-oriented, free-to-use, cross-platform database program that can merely leverage JSON-like forms.

MariaDB, then again, is a commercially-supported fork of MySQL whose pluggable and purpose-built storage engines improve workloads that generally required a vast collection of different databases.

PostgreSQL vs SQL Server: Which Database Must You Select?

Each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server are extensively used relational databases, alternatively who takes the cake? From the above comparisons, PostgreSQL trumps SQL Server in numerous situations. Not only is it open-source and loose, however it for sure moreover has various choices which can be merely available and may also be carried out automatically, by contrast to Microsoft SQL Server.

Moreover, PostgreSQL has a further suitable concurrency keep an eye on manner. It will most likely brilliantly take care of cases where various processes can get entry to and control shared data at the identical time.

If you happen to’re working a small commerce, PostgreSQL in most cases is a suitable variety for you as it’s loose and offers various choices which can be useful to control the information. It’s easy to place in and may also be carried out in nearly all kinds of operating systems. However, for corporations with a huge investment inside the Microsoft SQL Server stack, SQL Server has its benefits over PostgreSQL.
Comparing PostgreSQL and SQL Server will help you understand the advantages of the two systems, and which one is best suited for you.🤝 Let’s dive in! ✅Click to Tweet


All in all, each and every PostgreSQL and SQL Server are sensible and multifaceted databases. While PostgreSQL can be used for almost any operating manner and is acceptable for small corporations that require maximum capacity, SQL Server is the most efficient for large corporations, in particular those that require the use of Microsoft products.

In this article, we’ve covered the principle diversifications between PostgreSQL and SQL Server, and their functions. The “right kind” variety will in any case come the entire method right down to how you plan to run your business.

Between PostgreSQL vs SQL Server, which database would you plan on the use of to your next problem, and why? We’d like to concentrate on your concepts! Percentage them inside the commentary phase beneath.

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