Record Information and Folders in Linux

by | Sep 4, 2023 | Etcetera | 0 comments

The ls Linux command is used to file knowledge and directories inside the provide list. While you type ls and press Enter inside the terminal, it’ll display the entire knowledge and folders inside the list you’re not too long ago in. It’s a basic command this is serving to consumers navigate and arrange their file software by means of providing an summary of the contents.

You’ll have the ability to moreover use reasonably a large number of possible choices with the ls command to view additional details, comparable to file permissions, ownership, file measurement, and modification dates. In this submit, we find all possible uses of the ls command.

Not unusual syntax for ls command:

$ ls [OPTION...] [FILE...]
1. Display hidden knowledge
ls -a

This feature will display the entire file of directories, along side hidden knowledge. Hidden knowledge get began with a dot (.)


.  ..  .config  .bashrc  file1.txt  folder1  .hiddenfolder  symbol.jpg

In this example, the only dot (.) represents the existing list, and the double dot (..) represents the mother or dad list. The .config and .bashrc knowledge, in conjunction with the .hiddenfolder, are hidden knowledge and directories that can no longer be confirmed with the most obvious ls command on the other hand are displayed proper right here because of the -a chance. The other items are commonplace, non-hidden knowledge and directories.

2. Sorting by means of file measurement
ls -S

Use the ls -S command to kind knowledge and directories by means of measurement in descending order, and then print them to the terminal.



In this example, file_large.mp4 is the largest file, and textfile.txt is the smallest file. The directories folder1/ and folder2/ are also listed, on the other hand the -S chance doesn’t consider their sizes inside the sorting. If you want to see the sizes in conjunction with the tips, you’ll combine the -S chance with the -l chance, like ls -lS.

3. Display knowledge in long construction
ls -l

The -l chance shows the contents of the list in a further detailed manner. Appearing the file’s owner and team of workers, final modified time, and further.

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general 48
drwxr-xr-x 5 individual individual 4096 Aug  6 10:30 Bureaucracy
-rw-r--r-- 1 individual individual  123 Aug  6 10:20 file.txt
drwxr-xr-x 2 individual individual 4096 Aug  6 10:15 Observe
-rwxr-xr-x 1 individual individual 2048 Aug  6 10:10
drwxr-xr-x 3 individual individual 4096 Aug  6 10:05 Pictures

Proper right here’s a breakdown of what each and every section approach:

  • drwxr-xr-x: The file permissions (e.g., d indicates a list, rwx approach be told, write, and execute permissions for the owner).
  • 5: The choice of arduous links to the file or list.
  • individual: The owner of the file or list (listed two instances, once for the owner and once for the group).
  • 4096: The file measurement in bytes.
  • Aug 6 10:30: The date and time the file or list was final modified.
  • Bureaucracy: The name of the file or list.
4. Sort by means of date and time
ls -t

This command varieties knowledge by means of final modified time. Necessarily essentially the most simply in recent years edited knowledge will appear on the most productive of the output, making them easy to go looking out.


file.txt  image.png  problem/  notes.docx  old_data.csv

In this example, file.txt is basically essentially the most simply in recent years modified file, while old_data.csv is the oldest. In case you occur to had been to run the command in a different list or at a different time, the output would vary in keeping with the tips and their modification circumstances in that particular list.

5. Display very best directories
ls -d */

Use this command to file the sub-directories with the exception of all other knowledge.


Proper right here’s a development output for the command, assuming you’ve 3 directories named Bureaucracy, Pictures, and Observe inside the provide list:

Bureaucracy/  Pictures/  Observe/

Each list name is followed by means of a slash (/), indicating that it is a list.

6. File knowledge and save results to a file
ls > [filename]

The ls > [filename] command implies that you’ll be able to save the output of the former command to a file.

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The command ls > filename.txt doesn’t display any output inside the terminal. As a substitute, it redirects the output of the ls command to a file named filename.txt.

In case you occur to had been to run the ls command in a list containing knowledge and folders, the names of those knowledge and folders will also be written to filename.txt. You wouldn’t see the rest inside the terminal itself.

Proper right here’s an example of what might be inside of filename.txt if the list contained 3 knowledge and one folder:


The fitting contents would depend on the knowledge and directories supply inside the provide list where the command was run.

7. File file householders with their ID
ls -n

This feature shows the owner and team of workers as UID and GID.


drwxr-xr-x 2 1001 1001 4096 Apr  1 12:34 directory1
-rw-r--r-- 1 1001 1001    0 Apr  1 12:34 file1.txt
-rwxr-xr-x 1 1002 1002  123 Apr  1 12:34

In this example, the main column shows the file permissions, the second column shows the choice of arduous links, the third and fourth columns show the individual and team of workers IDs, the fifth column shows the file measurement in bytes, and the sixth and seventh columns show the date and time of the final modification. The final column shows the name of the file or list.

Additional Linux directions:
List Operations rmdir · cd · pwd
Document Operations cat · cp · dd · much less · ls · mkdir · mv · tail · tar · zip
Document Device Operations chown · mkfs
Networking ping · curl · wget · iptables
Search and Text Processing in finding · grep · sed · whatis
Device Wisdom and Keep an eye on env · historical past · best · who
Client and Session Keep an eye on display screen · su · sudo

The submit Record Information and Folders in Linux appeared first on Hongkiat.

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